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Migraine attack ?

Migraine attack

The causes for triggering a migraine attack are not yet medically clear. However, there have been countless attempts and models to explain the relationships.

Summary of the vascular hypothesis in

a migraine attack

The blood vessels of the head reflexively dilate during a migraine attack . This reflex is controlled by the trigeminal nerve ( trigeminovascular reflex ). The stretch receptors in the walls of blood vessels are responsible for the sensation of pain. The pain projection (irritation) of the trigeminal nerve on the hypothalamus area is being discussed as a possible cause for the accompanying symptoms (light sensitivity, sound sensitivity, nausea, etc.).

Vascular hypothesis

The vascular hypothesis has evolved in recent years in some areas. Old status of the hypothesis

- Blood vessels expanding substances

Migraine attacks can be triggered by blood vessels expanding substances.

- Blood vessels constricting substances

A reduction in the migraine attack symptoms may be achieved by constricting blood vessels substances.

- Migraine aura symptoms

Until now the migraine aura symptoms could not be sufficiently explained by the vascular hypothesis.

New hypothesis of local sub circulation

Different hypotheses of the cause of emergence of  migraine attacks have been combined: the vascular hypothesis, the neurogenic hypothesis and the over excitation hypothesis. A range in the brain – with  a locally induced sub circulation – is  understood to serve as link between these different hypotheses . There are various causes which may lead to local constrictions in the blood vessels. A detailed description can be found on the page " Why migraine ?" A reduction of the arterial blood pressure in a part of the brain may create a slight vacuum in a localized region. This can result in an edema (water retention) from blood plasma. The blood serum is drawn into this area through ​​the surrounding tissue by the higher blood pressure produced by the diffusion of osmotic pressure. In cases of migraine attacks , increased levels of blood plasma have often been detected in the affected area. Through a so-called " sterile neurogenic inflammation ", a dilation of blood vessels ( vasodilation ) can be caused by an activation of mast cells. The resulting increase of vascular permeability and the formation of edema resulting from the blood plasma can often be observed.

Blood vessel expanding substances

A migraine attack may be triggered by substances expanding blood vessels when the pressure drop in the vessel leads to a deficiency of the local areas of the brain.

Lower arterial blood pressure

By low arterial blood pressure in an area of ​​the brain, a slight vacuum can occur in a localized region.

Vessel opening substances

Since not every person reacts to vessels opening substances with a migraine attack ,  other individual factors must be involved.

Vessel opening

An opening of the vessels lowers the general blood pressure. There are areas of the brain that need a certain amount of blood pressure in order to perform optimally their function. When these areas require a higher blood pressure to ensure their function, and the blood pressure is reduced by a vessel opening, a lower local blood circulation may occur. In most cases, the body tries to compensate for this deficiency with a slight increase in blood pressure. Once the supply is restored, the area of ​​the brain is able to fulfill its function again.

Consequences of an under-supply

A deficiency in the brain area can be triggered by: - an irritation of the nerves, - a local spasm of the muscle layers in the arteries, - excessive demands of the various functional areas of the brain, - inflammatory changes (release of inflammation- mediating neurotransmitters) As already mentioned, there are various causes which may lead to local constrictions in the blood vessels. Additional details may be found on the page " Why migraine ? “.  In such cases, a general lowering of blood pressure can easily trigger a migraine .

Blood vessels expanding substances

can stop a migraine attack

When the migraine attack is caused by a stress that is caused by a psychosomatic irritation (convulsions of the muscular layer of an artery) in the region of the brain, a migraine attack can be stopped with circulation-enhancing substances. In other words: The spasm of the vessels can be terminated using blood vessels expanding substances. The migraine  that has arisen from the aforementioned stress is thus also completed.

Blood vessels constricting substances

can stop a migraine attack

When the migraine attack is caused by a mechanical constriction of blood vessels, a migraine attack can be stopped with circulation- promoting substances. Such mechanical constrictions can be triggered by the following: - a chronic deformity of the cervical spine - deposits in the blood vessels (arteries and veins) - inflammatory changes in the head region - autoimmune reactions - cancers, etc. In other words: Through blood vessels constricting substances, the blood flow to the brain areas can be improved again. The migraine that has emerged from the previously mentioned lower blood circulation is thereby also terminated.

Migraine Aura

Migraine aura symptoms are sufficiently explained by the vascular hypothesis in conjunction with local blood circulation disorder. The migraine aura may lead inter alia to local irritation of nerves in the responsible control areas of the brain. Instructional videos - Migraine headache

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